The best designed and properly installed onlot sewage disposal system will still malfunction if the homeowner does not properly operate and maintain the sytem. In addition to requiring costly repairs, malfunctioning systems can contaminate surface and groundwaters, cause various health problems, and spread disease as well as create unsightly messes and foul odors when raw sewage surfaces or backs up into the home.
How an Onlot (aka "Septic") System Functions
There are two basic types of anaerobic (without Oxygen) onlot systems; those with gravity distribution systems and those with pressure distribution systems. In both types, there are three major components:
Sewage flows to the septic tank, where the primary treatment process takes place. In the tank, the heaviest matter settles to the bottom (forming sludge) and the lighter matter (scum) floats on top of a somewhat clear liquid called effluent. While the sludge and scum must be pumped out regularly, the clear liquid flows out of the tank to a distribution box or dosing tank, and is then directed to the absorption area by gravity flow or through pressurized pipes. Within the absorption area, this effluent exits through pipes into a layer of gravel and then percolates through the soil for additional treatment. The bacteria in the soil neutralizes many of the contaminants in the wastewater.
Signs of an onlot system in trouble include:
Many of these signs indicate an onlot system malfunction.
Homeowners can help prevent malfunctions and ensure the long-term use of their onlot system by doing the following:
Conserving Water and Reducing Wasteflow
Onlot systems not only treat and dispose of domestic sewage from toilets, they also receive wastewater from various other household fixtures, including baths, showers, kitchen sinks, garbage disposals, automatic dishwaters and laundries.
Conserving water and reducing the amount of wasteflow from household activities is an important step to ensuring long-term use. The more water-using devices in a household, the greater the burden is on the onlot system.
Following are some helpful water conservation tips and a comparison of water usage between conventional fixtures versus water-saving fixtures.
Pumping Your Septic Tank
A septic tank accumulates solids (sludge) and scum which should be pumped out at least every three to five years. The frequency of pumping depends upon tank size and household size. Larger households generally require more frequent pumpings (every one or two years).
In Pennsylvania, specific tank sizes are generally based on the number of bedrooms in the home because the number of bedrooms is an indicator of household size. For example, a home with three bedrooms must have a 900 gallon or larger septic tank. The more bedrooms, the larger the septic tank.
For more information on the recommended frequency of pumpings, contact your local agency (normally your local township) Sewage Enforcement Officer or the Department of Environmental Protection.
Your Toilet Is Not A Trash Can
Trillions of living, beneficial bacteria constantly treat and decompose raw sewage in a septic system. The effectiveness of these bacteria can be impaired if harmful substances and chemicals are put into the septic system. Harmful substances/chemicals include:
Remember, what goes into your toilet and drains many eventually end up back in your drinking water. So instead of using caustic toilet bowl cleaners or bleach, try mild detergent or baking soda or one half cup of borax per gallon of water.
Also NEVER flush bulky, hard to decompose items such a sanitary napkins, diapers, paper towels, cigarette filters, plastics, eggshells, bones or coffee grounds down the toilet because they can clog the system